How to detect multiple sclerosis?

How to detect multiple sclerosis? If we tell about this then we have to tell that, “By Lumber puncture, MRI, evoked potentials and some more way multiple sclerosis can be detected.” But in this article, we will learn about the detection of multiple sclerosis in brief.

How to detect multiple sclerosis

Introduction


Most doctors call multiple sclerosis multiple sclerosis, the British call it disseminated sclerosis, and the French call it sclerose en plaques. The widespread nature of disseminated lesions was known to pathologists in the early 19th century, especially as described by Carswell, Cruveilhier, and later Frerichs, but JM Charcot at the Salpetriere in the latter part of the century is considered to be the first clinically targeted And the pathological aspects of the disease.

He collected 34 cases, laying the foundation for understanding the disease. With neurosyphilis, multiple sclerosis forms most of the basis for early clinical-pathological relevance and clinical methods of neurology.

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How to detect multiple sclerosis?

Therefore, it is one of the oldest neurological diseases and one of the most important neurological diseases because of its frequency, long-term nature, and trends affecting young people. For this, you should go to your doctor as soon as possible to detect multiple sclerosis if you suspect that you have had this disease.

Cruveilhier (circa 1835) attributed it to sweat suppression in his initial description of the disease, and since then, there have been countless speculations about the cause of the disease.

Although many early theories are out of date based on current concepts, other theories are still interesting. It doesn’t make much sense to list them here.

Multiple sclerosis


Multiple sclerosis is a chronic disease. Its clinical feature is the onset of focal diseases of the brain, optic nerve, and spinal cord, with varying degrees and recurrence over many years, usually progressive.

The neurological manifestations are diverse and are determined by the different locations and extensions of the demyelinating lesions; however, these lesions tend to occur in certain parts of the central nervous system, leading to the complexity of symptoms, signs, and imaging findings.

They include weakness, paresthesia, paraparesis, loss of vision, diplopia, nystagmus, dysarthria, tremor, ataxia, deep sensory impairment, and bladder dysfunction. At the beginning of the disease and the first few years, when symptoms and signs point to a single part of the nervous system, the diagnosis may be uncertain.

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How to detect multiple sclerosis?

Later, as the disease recurred and spread to the entire central nervous system, the detection of multiple sclerosis became quite certain. There may be a long incubation period (1 to 10 years or more) from mild initial symptoms (or even inability to receive medical care) to later appearance of more characteristic symptoms.

In most cases, there is initially a relapse-remitting pattern, that is, signs and symptoms are partially or completely improved, and then the same abnormality recurs or new abnormalities appear in other parts of the system after different time intervals. String together.

In more than half of patients, the disease is in the form of an ongoing course, especially in patients over 40 years of age (primary progressive MS). Or, more commonly, in the early stages, the recurrence becomes progressive (secondary; progressive MS).

One rule that has guided clinicians in the past is that the detection of MS is unsafe unless there is a history of remission and recurrence and evidence of examination of multiple discrete CNS lesions.

The emergence of magnetic resonance imaging and its ability to detect clinically obvious lesions has replaced the sole reliance on clinical diagnostic criteria.

Multiple sclerosis symptoms


The symptoms of multiple sclerosis vary greatly from person to person and can affect any part of the body. You can detect multiple sclerosis by these symptoms also.

The symptoms of MS are:

  • Fatigue
  • Difficulty in Motor control
  • Sensory problems
  • Cognitive problems
  • Mood dysfunction
  • Bowel and bladder dysfunction
  • Sexual dysfunction

Fatigue

Fatigue is one of the most common symptoms of multiple sclerosis and it may be called an initial symptom of MS. It occurs in 75-95% of people with multiple sclerosis. Fatigue can occur at any stage of this disease. Symptoms are independent of the severity or duration of multiple sclerosis. This can affect fatigue and is an important symptom to watch out for. There are many ways to combat MS fatigue.

Difficulty in motor control

Difficulty with walking, balance, or coordination, muscle twitching or tremors, weakness, speech impairment or numbness, difficulty swallowing, dizziness, or lightheadedness.

Sensory problems

Sensory problems are often among the first symptoms of multiple sclerosis, which affects 20-50% of people with the disease. These abnormal sensations, known as paresthesias, include numbness, burning, tingling, and increased sensitivity. Paresthesias can be caused by many other factors, including: for example, prolonged sitting or standing in one position, taking certain medications, or insufficient blood supply to the affected area.

Itching, also called pruritus, can be a sensory symptom of multiple sclerosis. This itching causes the urge to scratch, which often intensifies the itching and can further damage the skin. Tingling, burning, or numbness caused by damage to the central nervous system is called dysesthesias.

Cognitive problems

Many studies show that 45-60% of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) have cognitive impairment. It is found at all stages of radiologically isolated asymptomatic syndromes, clinically isolated syndromes, and clinical multiple sclerosis. Cognitive decline occurs relatively quickly in multiple sclerosis, which often begins in childhood.

Cognitive deficits often affect personal and work status. Depression, anxiety, and malaise exacerbate symptoms, but cognitive reserve partially protects them. Although there is no predictor of which patients will develop the cognitive impairment associated with multiple sclerosis. Duration and subtype of illness, race, gender and cognitive ability can play a role.

Mood dysfunction

Emotional disorders are common in multiple sclerosis and consist of mood and mood disorders. Major mood disorders include major depressive disorder, depression, bipolar disorder, panic disorder, and generalized anxiety disorder. The association with multiple sclerosis is varied and complex, and it is unclear whether this is a direct result of a disease process or a psychological response to disease.

Bowel and bladder dysfunction

Bowel and bladder problems are common in multiple sclerosis, from mild urinary incontinence and constipation to more serious problems. Bladder problems include frequent and/or urgent urination and the need to empty the bladder completely or at the wrong time. Bowel problems include constipation and, in rare cases, loss of bowel control.

Sexual dysfunction

Sexual dysfunction is a common symptom for multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. However, it is an underestimated condition that has not been reported by either patients or doctors. Sexual dysfunction can affect a person’s relationships, mood, quality of life, and daily functioning. The Mellen Center approach is to identify the patient’s symptoms of sexual dysfunction, identify the cause of the problem and treat it from a multidisciplinary perspective.

Multiple sclerosis causes


There is no single cause of multiple sclerosis. However, research has shown complex interactions between genetic factors, environmental factors, and lifestyle.

Genetic: Researchers have not found a single gene or combination of genes that causes multiple sclerosis (MS). However, they have identified many genes that increase the risk of multiple sclerosis. People carrying the gene will surely get sick with certain diseases. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is not such a disease.

There are over 200 genes that can increase the risk of multiple sclerosis (MS), especially in certain environmental conditions. Twin studies have shown that if one of the twins gets sick, the other is more likely to get sick.

However, twins tend to share environmental factors in common, especially at a young age, so genetic and environmental factors may explain this phenomenon.

Viral infection: The most likely cause of multiple sclerosis (MS) is a virus. This is because more than 90% of MS patients have high IgG levels, which are manifested in oligoclonal binding in the brain and cerebrospinal fluid. A number of viruses have been linked to MS, including the Epstein-Barr virus, which causes fever.

Vitamin D: There is currently no evidence that a deficiency of this vitamin is the cause of multiple sclerosis. There is growing concern that vitamin D deficiency is prevalent in both low- and equatorial sun-exposed areas.

We also know that multiple sclerosis is most common in northern climates (above 40 degrees latitude). Scandinavian countries with low solar radiation have the highest incidence of multiple sclerosis.

The relationship between decreased sunlight and decreased vitamin D synthesis and immune system function is not fully understood at this time.

Smoking: Smoking is considered for the development of multiple sclerosis (MS). This habit is also closely associated with worsening disease progression and decreased effectiveness of treatment for multiple sclerosis. Children exposed to secondhand smoke are also more likely than their peers to develop multiple sclerosis.

Experts suggest that there may be environmental and genetic factors. However, the link between multiple sclerosis and smoking is so strong that leading companies in the field, including the National Multiple Sclerosis Society, are recommending quitting smoking for those at risk of or suffering from multiple sclerosis. MS develops in both a spouse and a parent.

How to detect multiple sclerosis?


There is no definitive diagnostic test for multiples sclerosis (MS). Clinically defined diagnostic criteria for multiples sclerosis (MS) require the documentation of two or more episodes of symptoms and two or more symptoms reflecting anatomically non-contiguous pathology of the CNS white matter tracts.

Symptoms must last at least 24 hours and appear in sporadic episodes at least one month apart. A neurologic examination should show at least one of two important signs. The second can be documented by abnormal preclinical studies such as magnetic resonance imaging and potential.

Similarly, the second (timely) clinical event in the new diagnostic scheme is only confirmed by the development of subclinical information, which usually reveals new focal white matter lesions on MRI.

The detection of intrathecal IgG can be used to aid in the diagnosis of patients in whom the disease progresses progressively within 6 months without overlapping relapses. To detect multiple sclerosis following diagnostic test should perform.

MRI

Magnetic resonance imaging has revolutionized the diagnosis and treatment of multiple sclerosis. Typical abnormalities are found in more than 95% of patients. It can identify areas (lesions) of the brain and spinal cord with multiple sclerosis. Contrast can be injected intravenously to indicate lesions that indicate active disease.

Blood test

Blood tests are often an effective way to rule out or confirm other diagnoses. Blood tests help the doctors to identify some conditions such as Lyme disease, which are causing the same symptoms as multiple sclerosis. This will bring your doctor one step closer to making an accurate diagnosis. The diagnosis of multiple sclerosis can take a long time before symptoms come and go, and there are no tests to make an accurate diagnosis. A new type of blood test is encouraging, but more clinical research is needed. It can be frustrating to wait, but each test can help address or identify other possible causes of your symptoms.

Lumbar puncture

A lumbar puncture is a diagnostic test for multiple sclerosis that collects and analyzes a sample of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) surrounding the brain and spinal cord in the skull and spine. This is also called a lumbar puncture. A lumbar puncture can be uncomfortable. The drop in cerebrospinal fluid pressure from sampling in some people can cause severe headaches. This usually takes less than 24 hours but may take longer. To reduce the risk of headaches, lie down for at least 6 hours after surgery and drink plenty of water.

Evoked potential test

Evoked potential tests can help doctors to determine if multiple sclerosis is present to you. This test measures the electrical activity of parts of the brain caused by sound, touch, and light. It helps doctors diagnose multiple sclerosis because it can detect nerve disorders that cannot be detected with other tests. When the body perceives light, sound, touch, and other senses, the brain receives this information in the form of a series of electrical signals. If you have multiple sclerosis (MS), the disease can damage your nerves and slow, change, or stop those actions. Your doctor can help you decide if this is right for you by performing available tests.

How can multiple sclerosis be detected early?


There is currently no specific test for early diagnosis of multiple sclerosis. But the diagnosis, therefore, continues to be based on the following symptoms.

Clinically Isolated syndrome

In 75% of cases, multiple sclerosis (MS) begins with a relapse. That is, the onset of neurological symptoms takes from several hours to several days, usually from several days to weeks, and gradually disappears almost completely. Some symptoms (for example, loss of vision in one eye, double vision, weakness, or tingling that gradually spreads to one or more limbs) is very common in young people. If so, it indicates multiple sclerosis. This is now known as a clinically isolated syndrome (CIS).

Very significant progression in diagnosis

The development of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has a very important role in the understanding and diagnosis of multiple sclerosis. In particular, the location of the lesions of multiple sclerosis and the frequency of clinically asymptomatic lesions, trauma, and asymptomatic lesions are emphasized. The examination showed that the active agent in comparison with the contrast agent and/or new lesions during the control MRI shows the progression of old lesions (spread in space) and the activity of the disease.

MS disease syndrome

  • Optic neuritis
  • Numbness
  • Tingling sensation
  • Weakness
  • Bowel and bladder dysfunction

Multiple sclerosis life expectancies


For many years, researchers have found that MS destroys the inner layer that protects nerves and shortens its lifespan. In a large study published in the journal Neurology in 2015, scientists compared 5,797 MS patients with 28,807 people without MS. But who has some things in common, such as age and location? The study found that the average life expectancy of MS patients is 75.9 years, while the average life expectancy of patients without MS is 83.4 years. The 7.5-year difference is similar to that recently discovered by other researchers.

Multiple sclerosis prognosis


If left untreated multiple sclerosis (MS), more than 30% of patients with this disease develop severe disabilities within 20 to 25 years after the onset of the disease. Several disease modulators used in multiple sclerosis have slowed the progression of the disease during studies.

It is unknown if this effect will last for long. Less than 5–10% of patients have a clinically mild MS phenotype and do not accumulate severe disability decades after onset. In-depth examination of these patients often reveals some degree of cognitive impairment.

People with primary progressive multiple sclerosis in men have the worst prognosis, they respond poorly to treatment and quickly become disabled. The high frequency of spinal cord injuries in primary progressive MS is likewise a factor in the fast progression of the disease.

Life expectancy in people with multiple sclerosis is slightly shorter, and survival rates are associated with the disease. Death usually occurs as a result of secondary complications (50-66%) such as pulmonary and renal causes, but can also be caused by causes other than the primary complication, suicide, or multiple sclerosis.

Marburg multiple sclerosis is an acute, clinically complete illness that can lead to coma or death within a few days.

Multiple sclerosis visually in brief

Resources


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